% Document-style collection for journals published by Elsevier Science. 
% To be used with LaTeX version 2.09 of 14 January 1992 (or later) 
%
% Version: 2.23
% Date:    4 July 1995
%
% Copyright (C) 1994 by Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.
%
% IMPORTANT NOTICE:
%
% You are not allowed to change this file. You may however copy this file 
% to a file with a different name and then change the copy. 
% 
% You are NOT ALLOWED to distribute this file alone. You are NOT ALLOWED 
% to take money for the distribution or use of this file (or a changed 
% version) except for a nominal charge for copying etc. 
% 
% You are allowed to distribute this file under the condition that it is 
% distributed together with all files mentioned in readme.els. 
% 
% If you receive only some of these files from someone, complain! 
% 
%
\def\esp@fileversion{2.23}
\def\esp@filedate{4 July 1995}
\def\@shortjnl{\@nil}
\def\@@shortjnl{\@nil}
\def\@journal{Elsevier Science}
\def\@issn{0}
\def\@jid{ELSART} \def\@shortjid{elsart}
\typeout{Elsevier Science preprint document style
\esp@fileversion \space\space <\esp@filedate>}
\def\partname{Part}
\def\contentsname{Contents}
\def\listfigurename{List of Figures}
\def\listtablename{List of Tables}
\def\refname{References}
\def\indexname{Index}
\def\figurename{Fig.}
\def\tablename{Table}
\def\abstractname{Abstract}
\def\@ptsize{2}
\def\ds@twoside{\@twosidetrue
                \@mparswitchtrue}
\def\ds@oneside{\@twosidefalse
                \@mparswitchfalse}
\@twocolumnfalse
\newif\if@TwoColumn
\def\ds@onecolumn{\@twocolumnfalse
                  \@TwoColumnfalse}
\def\ds@twocolumn{\@twocolumnfalse
                  \@TwoColumntrue}
\@TwoColumnfalse
\@twosidefalse
\@namedef{ds@10pt}{}
\@namedef{ds@11pt}{}
\def\ds@fleqn{}
\def\@pagenumprefix{}
\newif\if@draft \@draftfalse
\def\query{}
\def\ds@draft{%
\@drafttrue
\def\query{\marginpar{???}}%
\overfullrule 5pt}
\let\snm\relax \let\cty\relax \let\cny\relax
\newif\if@seceqn
\@seceqnfalse
\def\ds@seceqn{\@seceqntrue}
\newif\if@secthm
\@secthmfalse
\def\ds@secthm{\@secthmtrue}
\newif\if@secfloat
\@secfloatfalse
\def\ds@secfloat{\@secfloattrue}
\def\ds@secnum{\@seceqntrue \@secfloattrue \@secthmtrue}%
\newif\if@nameyear
\@nameyearfalse
\def\ds@nameyear{\@nameyeartrue}
\newif\if@nfss
\@ifundefined{selectfont}{\@nfssfalse}{\@nfsstrue}
\@options
\input \@shortjid1\@ptsize.sty\relax
\def\left@label#1{{#1}\hss}
\def\right@label#1{\hss\llap{#1}}
\def\thick@label#1{\hspace\labelsep #1}
\newcount\@maxlistdepth
\@maxlistdepth=2
\def\labelitemi{--}
\def\labelitemii{$\cdot$}
\def\labelenumi{(\theenumi)}        \def\theenumi{\roman{enumi}}
\def\labelenumii{(\theenumii)}      \def\theenumii{\alph{enumii}}
	\def\p@enumii{\theenumi}
\def\enumerate{%
  \ifnum \@enumdepth >\@maxlistdepth
    \@toodeep
  \else
    \advance\@enumdepth \@ne
    \edef\@enumctr{enum\romannumeral\the\@enumdepth}%
    \list{\csname label\@enumctr\endcsname}%
       {\usecounter{\@enumctr}
       \let\makelabel=\right@label}
  \fi}
\def\itemize{%
  \ifnum \@itemdepth >\@maxlistdepth
    \@toodeep
  \else
    \advance\@itemdepth \@ne
    \edef\@itemitem{labelitem\romannumeral\the\@itemdepth}%
    \setleftmargin{i}{--}%
    \setleftmargin{ii}{$\cdot$}%
    \list{\csname\@itemitem\endcsname}%
       {\let\makelabel\right@label}
  \fi}
\def\verse{\let\\=\@centercr
  \list{}{\itemsep\z@
  \itemindent \z@
  \listparindent\z@
  \rightmargin 1em
  \leftmargin \rightmargin}\item[]}
\let\endverse\endlist
\def\quotation{\list{}{\itemindent\z@
  \leftmargin 1em \rightmargin \z@
  \parsep 0pt plus 1pt}\item[]}
\let\endquotation=\endlist
\def\quote{\list{}{\itemindent\z@
  \leftmargin 1em \rightmargin\z@}\item[]}
\let\endquote=\endlist
\def\descriptionlabel#1{\hspace\labelsep \bf #1}
\def\description{\list{}{\labelwidth\z@
  \leftmargin 1em \itemindent-\leftmargin
  \let\makelabel\descriptionlabel}}
\let\enddescription\endlist
\def\operatorname#1{\mathop{\mathrm{#1}}\nolimits}
\def\lefteqn#1{\hbox to\z@{$\displaystyle {#1}$\hss}}
\newskip\eqnbaselineskip
\jot=2pt
\newskip\eqnlineskip
\eqnbaselineskip=14pt  \eqnlineskip=2pt
\newdimen\mathindent
\if@TwoColumn
  \mathindent 0em
\else
  \mathindent 2em
\fi
\def\[{\relax\ifmmode\@badmath
  \else%
  \@beginparpenalty\predisplaypenalty
  \@endparpenalty\postdisplaypenalty
  \begin{trivlist}\@topsep \eqntopsep
   \@topsepadd \eqntopsep
  \item[]\leavevmode
  \hbox to\linewidth\bgroup$ \displaystyle
  \hskip\mathindent\bgroup\fi}
\def\]{\relax\ifmmode \egroup $\hfil \egroup
  \end{trivlist}%
  \addvspace{-\parskip}%
  \else \@badmath \fi
}
\def\equation{\@beginparpenalty\predisplaypenalty
  \@endparpenalty\postdisplaypenalty
\refstepcounter{equation}\trivlist
   \@topsep \eqntopsep
   \@topsepadd \eqntopsep
   \item[]\leavevmode
  \hbox to\linewidth\bgroup $ \displaystyle \hskip\mathindent\bgroup}
\def\endequation{\egroup$\hfil \displaywidth\linewidth
  \@eqnnum\egroup \endtrivlist \addvspace{-\parskip}%
}
\def\eqnarray{%
  \parskip \z@
  \par
  \noindent
  \baselineskip\eqnbaselineskip\lineskip\eqnlineskip
  \lineskiplimit\eqnlineskip
  \stepcounter{equation}%
  \let\@currentlabel=\theequation
  \global\@eqnswtrue
  \global\@eqcnt\z@ \tabskip\mathindent \let\\=\@eqncr
  \abovedisplayskip\eqntopsep\ifvmode\advance\abovedisplayskip\partopsep\fi
  \belowdisplayskip\abovedisplayskip
  \belowdisplayshortskip\abovedisplayskip
  \abovedisplayshortskip\abovedisplayskip
  $$\halign to \displaywidth\bgroup\@eqnsel
    \pre@coli$\displaystyle\tabskip\z@{##}$\post@coli
    &\global\@eqcnt\@ne
    \pre@colii$\displaystyle{##}$\post@colii
    &\global\@eqcnt\tw@
    \pre@coliii $\displaystyle\tabskip\z@{##}$\post@coliii
    \tabskip\@centering&\llap{##}\tabskip\z@\cr}
\def\endeqnarray{\@@eqncr\egroup
 \global\advance\c@equation\m@ne$$\global\@ignoretrue }
\def\pre@coli{\hskip\@centering}              \def\post@coli{}
\def\pre@colii{\hskip 2\eqnarraycolsep \hfil} \def\post@colii{\hfil}
\def\pre@coliii{\hskip 2\eqnarraycolsep}      \def\post@coliii{\hfil}
\arraycolsep 2pt
\tabcolsep 6pt
\def\arraystretch{1.5}
\arrayrulewidth 0.4pt
\doublerulesep 2pt
\tabbingsep \labelsep
\skip\@mpfootins = 6pt plus 2pt
\fboxsep = 7pt
\fboxrule = 0.4pt
\newcounter{part}
\newcounter{section}
\newcounter{subsection}[section]
\newcounter{subsubsection}[subsection]
\newcounter{paragraph}[subsubsection]
\newcounter{subparagraph}[paragraph]
\def\thepart {\Roman{part}}
\newcounter{table}
\newcounter{figure}
\if@seceqn
 \@addtoreset{equation}{section}
 \def\theequation{\arabic{section}.\arabic{equation}}
\else
 \def\theequation{\arabic{equation}}
\fi
\if@secfloat
 \@addtoreset{table}{section}
 \def\thetable{\arabic{section}.\arabic{table}}
 \@addtoreset{figure}{section}
 \def\thefigure{\arabic{section}.\arabic{figure}}
\else
 \def\thefigure{\arabic{figure}}
 \def\thetable{\arabic{table}}
\fi
\def\thesection      {\arabic{section}}
\def\thesubsection   {\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
\def\thesubsubsection{\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}}
\def\theparagraph    {\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}}
\def\thesubparagraph {\theparagraph.\arabic{subparagraph}}
\def\qed{\relax\ifmmode\hskip2em \Box\else\unskip\nobreak\hskip1em $\Box$\fi}
\let\proof@headerfont\bf
\ifx\normalshape\undefined
  \gdef\normalshape{\rm}
\fi
\newenvironment{pf}%
  {\par\addvspace{\@bls plus 0.5\@bls minus 0.1\@bls}\noindent
   {\bf\proofname}\enspace\ignorespaces}%
  {\par\addvspace{\@bls plus 0.5\@bls minus 0.1\@bls}}
\def\proofname{Proof.}
\@namedef{pf*}#1{\par\begingroup\def\proofname{#1}\pf\endgroup\ignorespaces}
\expandafter\let\csname endpf*\endcsname=\endpf
\if@secthm
 \newtheorem{thm}{Theorem}[section]
\else
 \newtheorem{thm}{Theorem}
\fi
\newtheorem{cor}[thm]{Corollary}
\newtheorem{lem}[thm]{Lemma}
\newtheorem{claim}[thm]{Claim}
\newtheorem{axiom}[thm]{Axiom}
\newtheorem{conj}[thm]{Conjecture}
\newtheorem{fact}[thm]{Fact}
\newtheorem{hypo}[thm]{Hypothesis}
\newtheorem{assum}[thm]{Assumption}
\newtheorem{prop}[thm]{Proposition}
\newtheorem{crit}[thm]{Criterion}
\newtheorem{defn}[thm]{Definition}
\newtheorem{exmp}[thm]{Example}
\newtheorem{rem}[thm]{Remark}
\newtheorem{prob}[thm]{Problem}
\newtheorem{prin}[thm]{Principle}
\newtheorem{alg}{Algorithm}
\long\def\@makealgocaption#1#2{\vskip 2ex \small
  \hbox to \hsize{\parbox[t]{\hsize}{{\bf #1.} #2}}}
\newcounter{algorithm}
\def\thealgorithm{\@arabic\c@algorithm}
\def\fps@algorithm{tbp}
\def\ftype@algorithm{4}
\def\ext@algorithm{lof}
\def\fnum@algorithm{Algorithm \thealgorithm}
\def\algorithm{\let\@makecaption\@makealgocaption\@float{algorithm}}
\let\endalgorithm\end@float
\newtheorem{note}{Note}
\newtheorem{summ}{Summary}
\newtheorem{case}{Case}
\def\@pnumwidth{2.55em}
\def\@tocrmarg{2.55em plus 5em}
\def\@dotsep{-2.5}
\setcounter{tocdepth}{2}
\def\tableofcontents{%
  \section*{\contentsname}%
  \@starttoc{toc}}
\def\l@section{\@dottedtocline{1}{0.0em}{1.40em}}
\def\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{1.40em}{2.24em}}
\def\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{2.24em}{3.09em}}
\def\thebibliography{%
  \@startsection{section}{1}{\z@}{20pt plus 8pt minus 4pt}
  {\@bls}{\normalsize\bf}*{\refname}%
  \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\refname}%
  \@thebibliography}
\let\endthebibliography=\endlist
\def\@thebibliography#1{
  \small
  \list{\@biblabel{\arabic{enumiv}}}{\settowidth\labelwidth{\@biblabel{#1}}
  \if@nameyear
    \labelwidth\z@ \labelsep\z@ \leftmargin\parindent
    \itemindent-\parindent
  \else
    \labelsep 3pt \itemindent\z@
    \leftmargin\labelwidth \advance\leftmargin\labelsep
\fi
    \itemsep 0.3\@bls plus 0.1\@bls minus 0.1\@bls
    \usecounter{enumiv}\let\p@enumiv\@empty
    \def\theenumiv{\arabic{enumiv}}}%
    \def\newblock{\hskip 0.11em plus 0.33em minus -0.07em}
    \tolerance\@M \hyphenpenalty\@M \hbadness5000 \sfcode`\.=1000\relax}
\if@nameyear
  \def\@biblabel#1{}
\else
  \def\@biblabel#1{\hskip \z@ plus 1filll[#1]}
\fi
\newcount\@tempcntc
\def\@citex[#1]#2{\if@filesw\immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citation{#2}}\fi
 \@tempcnta\z@\@tempcntb\m@ne\def\@citea{}\@cite{\@for\@citeb:=#2\do
  {\@ifundefined
   {b@\@citeb}{\@citeo\@tempcntb\m@ne\@citea\def\@citea{,}{\bf ?}\@warning
   {Citation `\@citeb' on page \thepage \space undefined}}%
  {\setbox\z@\hbox{\global\@tempcntc0\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname\relax}%
   \ifnum\@tempcntc=\z@ \@citeo\@tempcntb\m@ne
    \@citea\def\@citea{,}\hbox{\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname}%
   \else
    \advance\@tempcntb\@ne
    \ifnum\@tempcntb=\@tempcntc
    \else\advance\@tempcntb\m@ne\@citeo
    \@tempcnta\@tempcntc\@tempcntb\@tempcntc\fi\fi}}\@citeo}{#1}}
\def\@citeo{\ifnum\@tempcnta>\@tempcntb\else\@citea\def\@citea{,}%
 \ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb\the\@tempcnta\else
  {\advance\@tempcnta\@ne\ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb \else \def\@citea{--}\fi
   \advance\@tempcnta\m@ne\the\@tempcnta\@citea\the\@tempcntb}\fi\fi}
\@namedef{cv*}{\section*{Curriculum Vitae}\cv}
\def\cv{\hangindent=7pc \hangafter=-12 \parskip\bigskipamount \small}
\def\footnote{\@ifnextchar[{\@xfootnote}{\refstepcounter
   {\@mpfn}\xdef\@thefnmark{\thempfn}\@footnotemark\@footnotetext}}
\def\footnotemark{\@ifnextchar[{\@xfootnotemark
    }{\refstepcounter{footnote}\xdef\@thefnmark{\thefootnote}\@footnotemark}}
\def\footnoterule{\kern-3\p@
  \hrule width 3pc
  \kern 2.6\p@}
\def\thempfootnote{\alph{mpfootnote}}
\def\mpfootnotemark{%
  \@ifnextchar[{\@xmpfootnotemark}{\stepcounter{mpfootnote}%
  \begingroup
    \let\protect\noexpand
    \xdef\@thefnmark{\thempfootnote}%
  \endgroup
  \@footnotemark}}
\def\@xmpfootnotemark[#1]{%
  \begingroup
    \c@mpfootnote #1\relax
    \let\protect\noexpand
    \xdef\@thefnmark{\thempfootnote}%
  \endgroup
  \@footnotemark}
\def\@mpmakefnmark{\,\hbox{$^{\mathrm{\@thefnmark}}$}}
\long\def\@mpmakefntext#1{\noindent
                     \hbox{$^{\mathrm{\@thefnmark}}$} #1}
\def\@iminipage[#1]#2{\leavevmode
  \@pboxswfalse
  \if #1b\vbox
  \else \if #1t\vtop
  \else \ifmmode \vcenter
  \else \@pboxswtrue $\vcenter
  \fi \fi \fi
  \bgroup \hsize #2\textwidth\hsize \columnwidth\hsize
  \@parboxrestore
  \def\@mpfn{mpfootnote}\def\thempfn{\thempfootnote}\c@mpfootnote\z@
  \let\@footnotetext\@mpfootnotetext
  \let\@makefntext\@mpmakefntext
  \let\@makefnmark\@mpmakefnmark
  \let\@listdepth\@mplistdepth \@mplistdepth\z@
  \@minipagerestore\global\@minipagetrue
  \everypar{\global\@minipagefalse\everypar{}}}
\def\fn@presym{}
\long\def\@makefntext#1{\noindent\hbox to 1em
  {\hfil$^{\fn@presym\mathrm{\@thefnmark}}$}\,#1}
\def\@makefnmark{\,\hbox{$^{\fn@presym\mathrm{\@thefnmark}}$}\,}
\setcounter{topnumber}{5}
\def\topfraction{0.99}
\def\textfraction{0.05}
\def\floatpagefraction{0.9}
\setcounter{bottomnumber}{5}
\def\bottomfraction{0.99}
\setcounter{totalnumber}{10}
\def\dbltopfraction{0.99}
\def\dblfloatpagefraction{0.8}
\setcounter{dbltopnumber}{5}
\newbox\@tempboxb
\long\def\@maketablecaption#1#2{\small
  \hbox to \hsize{\parbox[t]{\hsize}{#1 \\ #2}}}
\long\def\@makefigurecaption#1#2{\small
  \vskip 8pt
  \setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{#1. #2}
  \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize
    \unhbox\@tempboxa\par
  \else
    \hbox to\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}%
  \fi}
\def\conttablecaption{\par \begingroup \@parboxrestore \normalsize
  \@makecaption{\fnum@table\,---\,continued}{}\par
  \vskip-1pc \endgroup}
\def\contfigurecaption{\vskip-1pc \par \begingroup \@parboxrestore \normalsize
  \@makecaption{\fnum@figure\,---\,continued}{}\par
  \endgroup}
\def\fps@figure{tbp}
\def\ftype@figure{1}
\def\ext@figure{lof}
\def\fnum@figure{\figurename~\thefigure}
\def\figure{\let\@makecaption\@makefigurecaption
  \let\contcaption\contfigurecaption \@float{figure}}
\let\endfigure\end@float
\@namedef{figure*}{\let\@makecaption\@makefigurecaption
  \let\contcaption\contfigurecaption \@dblfloat{figure}}
\@namedef{endfigure*}{\end@dblfloat}
\def\fps@table{tbp}
\def\ftype@table{2}
\def\ext@table{lot}
\def\fnum@table{\tablename~\thetable}
\def\table{\let\@makecaption\@maketablecaption \small
  \let\footnoterule\relax
  \let\contcaption\conttablecaption \@float{table}}
\let\endtable\end@float
\@namedef{table*}{\let\@makecaption\@maketablecaption \small
  \let\footnoterule\relax
  \let\contcaption\conttablecaption \@dblfloat{table}}
\@namedef{endtable*}{\end@dblfloat}
\newtoks\t@glob@notes
\newtoks\t@loc@notes
\newcount\note@cnt
\newcounter{author}
\newcount\n@author
\def\n@author@{}
\newcounter{collab}
\newcount\n@collab
\def\n@collab@{}
\newcounter{address}
\newdimen\sv@mathsurround
\newcount\sv@hyphenpenalty
\newcount\prev@elem \prev@elem=0
\newcount\cur@elem  \cur@elem=0
\chardef\e@title=1
\chardef\e@subtitle=1
\chardef\e@author=2
\chardef\e@collab=3
\chardef\e@address=4
\newif\if@newelem
\newif\if@firstauthor
\newif\if@preface
\newif\if@hasabstract
\newbox\fm@box
\newdimen\fm@size
\newbox\t@abstract
\newbox\t@keyword
\let\report@elt\@gobble
\def\add@tok#1#2{\global#1\expandafter{\the#1#2}}
\def\add@xtok#1#2{\begingroup
  \no@harm
  \xdef\@act{\global\noexpand#1{\the#1#2}}\@act
\endgroup}
\def\beg@elem{\global\t@loc@notes={}\global\note@cnt\z@}
\def\@xnamedef#1{\expandafter\xdef\csname #1\endcsname}
\def\no@harm{%
  \let\\=\relax  \let\rm\relax
  \let\ss=\relax \let\ae=\relax \let\oe=\relax
  \let\AE=\relax \let\OE=\relax
  \let\o=\relax  \let\O=\relax
  \let\i=\relax  \let\j=\relax
  \let\aa=\relax \let\AA=\relax
  \let\l=\relax  \let\L=\relax
  \let\d=\relax  \let\b=\relax \let\c=\relax
  \let\bar=\relax
  \def\protect{\noexpand\protect\noexpand}}
\def\proc@elem#1#2{\begingroup
    \no@harm
    \let\thanksref\@gobble
    \@xnamedef{@#1}{#2}%
  \endgroup
  \prev@elem=\cur@elem
  \cur@elem=\csname e@#1\endcsname
  \expandafter\elem@nothanksref#2\thanksref\relax}
\def\elem@nothanksref#1\thanksref{\futurelet\@peektok\elem@thanksref}
\def\elem@thanksref{\ifx\@peektok\relax
  \else \expandafter\elem@morethanksref \fi}
\def\elem@morethanksref#1{\add@thanksref{#1}\elem@nothanksref}
\def\add@thanksref#1{\global\advance\note@cnt\@ne
  \ifnum\note@cnt>\@ne \add@xtok\t@loc@notes{\note@sep}\fi
  \add@tok\t@loc@notes{\ref{#1}}}
\def\note@sep{,}
\def\thanks{\@ifnextchar[{\@tempswatrue
  \thanks@optarg}{\@tempswafalse\thanks@optarg[]}}
\def\thanks@optarg[#1]#2{\refstepcounter{footnote}\if@tempswa
  \label{#1}\else\relax\fi
  \add@tok\t@glob@notes{\footnotetext}%
  \add@xtok\t@glob@notes{[\the\c@footnote]}%
  \add@tok\t@glob@notes{{#2}}}
\def\frontmatter{%
  \let\@corresp@note\relax
  \global\t@glob@notes={}\global\c@author\z@
  \global\c@collab\z@ \global\c@address\z@
  \sv@mathsurround\mathsurround \m@th
  \global\n@author=0\n@author@\relax
  \global\n@collab=0\n@collab@\relax
  \global\advance\n@author\m@ne
  \global\advance\n@collab\m@ne
  \global\@firstauthortrue
  \global\@hasabstractfalse
  \global\@prefacefalse
  \@ifundefined{RIfM@}{}{\undo@AMS}%
  \parskip 4\p@
  \open@fm \ignorespaces}
\def\preface{\@prefacetrue}
\def\endfrontmatter{\global\n@author=\c@author
  \global\n@collab=\c@collab \@writecount
  \global\@topnum\z@
  \ifx\@firstpage\@lastpage
    \gdef\@pagerange{\@pagenumprefix\@firstpage}
  \else
    \gdef\@pagerange{\@pagenumprefix\@firstpage--\@pagenumprefix\@lastpage}
  \fi
  \thispagestyle{copyright}%
  \if@preface \else
  \history@fmt
  \newcount\c@sv@footnote
  \global\c@sv@footnote=\c@footnote
  \if@hasabstract
    \vskip 24pt plus 6pt minus 3pt
    \hrule height 0.4pt
    \vskip 8pt
    \unvbox\t@abstract
    \unvbox\t@keyword
    \vskip 10pt
    \hrule height 0.4pt
  \fi
  \dedicated@fmt
  \vskip 18pt
  \fi
  \close@fm
  \output@glob@notes
  \global\c@footnote=\c@sv@footnote
  \global\@prefacefalse
  \global\leftskip\z@
  \global\@rightskip\z@
  \global\rightskip\@rightskip
  \global\mathsurround\sv@mathsurround
  \let\title\relax       \let\author\relax
  \let\collab\relax      \let\address\relax
  \let\frontmatter\relax \let\endfrontmatter\relax
  \let\@maketitle\relax  \let\@@maketitle\relax
  \normal@text}
\let\maketitle\relax
\newdimen\t@xtheight
\splittopskip=\topskip \splitmaxdepth=\maxdepth
\t@xtheight\textheight \advance\t@xtheight-\splittopskip
\def\open@fm{\global\setbox\fm@box=\vbox\bgroup
  \hsize=\textwidth
  \centering
  \sv@hyphenpenalty\hyphenpenalty
  \hyphenpenalty\@M}
\def\close@fm{\egroup
  \fm@size=\dp\fm@box \advance\fm@size by \ht\fm@box
  \@whiledim\fm@size>\t@xtheight \do{%
    \global\setbox\@tempboxa=\vsplit\fm@box to \t@xtheight
    \unvbox\@tempboxa \newpage
    \fm@size=\dp\fm@box \advance\fm@size by \ht\fm@box}
  \if@TwoColumn
    \twocolumn[\unvbox\fm@box] \@TwoColumnParms
  \else
    \unvbox\fm@box
  \fi}
\def\output@glob@notes{\bgroup
  \the\t@glob@notes
  \egroup}
\def\justify@off{\let\\=\@normalcr
  \leftskip\z@ \@rightskip\@flushglue \rightskip\@rightskip}
\def\justify@on{\let\\=\@normalcr
  \leftskip\z@ \@rightskip\z@ \rightskip\@rightskip}
\def\normal@text{\global\let\\=\@normalcr
  \global\leftskip\z@ \global\@rightskip\z@ \global\rightskip\@rightskip
  \global\parfillskip\@flushglue}
\def\@writecount{\write\@mainaux{\string\global
  \string\@namedef{n@author@}{\the\n@author}}%
  \write\@mainaux{\string\global\string
  \@namedef{n@collab@}{\the\n@collab}}}
\def\title{\@ifnextchar[{\@@title}{\@@title[]}}
\def\@@title[#1]#2{%
  \beg@elem
  \title@note@fmt
  \add@tok\t@glob@notes
    {\title@note@fmt}%
  \proc@elem{title}{#2}%
  \def\title@notes{\the\t@loc@notes}%
  \title@fmt{\@title}{\title@notes}%
  \ignorespaces}
\def\subtitle#1{%
  \beg@elem
  \proc@elem{subtitle}{#1}%
  \def\title@notes{\the\t@loc@notes}%
  \subtitle@fmt{\@subtitle}{\title@notes}%
  \ignorespaces}
\newdimen \@logoheight \@logoheight 5pc
\newdimen \@logowidth
\@logowidth 30mm
\def\title@fmt#1#2{%
  \vspace*{12pt}
  {\Large #1\,\hbox{$^{#2}$}\par}%
  \vskip 24pt
  }
\def\subtitle@fmt#1#2{%
  {\Large #1\,\hbox{$^{#2}$}\par}}
\def\title@note@fmt{\def\thefootnote{\fnstar{footnote}}}
\def\author{\@ifnextchar[{\author@optarg}{\author@optarg[]}}
\def\author@optarg[#1]#2{\stepcounter{author}%
  \beg@elem
  \@for\@tempa:=#1\do{\expandafter\add@thanksref\expandafter{\@tempa}}%
  \report@elt{author}\proc@elem{author}{#2}%
  \author@fmt{\the\c@author}{\the\t@loc@notes}{\@author}}%
\def\author@fmt#1#2#3{\@newelemtrue
  \if@firstauthor
  \first@author \global\@firstauthorfalse \fi
  \ifnum\prev@elem=\e@author \global\@newelemfalse \fi
  \if@newelem \author@fmt@init \fi
  \edef\@tempb{#2}\ifx\@tempb\@empty
    \hbox{#3}\else
    \hbox{#3\,$^{\mathrm{#2}}$}%
  \fi}
\def\first@author{\author@note@fmt
  \add@tok\t@glob@notes
    {\author@note@fmt\@corresp@note}}%
\def\author@fmt@init{%
  \par
  \vskip 8pt plus 4pt minus 2pt
  \large
  \leavevmode}
\def\and{\unskip~and~}
\def\collab{\@ifstar{\collab@arg}{\collab@arg}}
\let\collaboration=\collab
\def\collab@arg#1{\stepcounter{collab}%
  \if@firstauthor \first@collab \global\@firstauthorfalse \fi
  \beg@elem
  \proc@elem{collab}{#1}%
  \collab@fmt{\the\c@collab}{\the\t@loc@notes}{\@collab}%
  \ignorespaces}
\def\collab@fmt#1#2#3{\@newelemtrue
  \ifnum\prev@elem=\e@collab \global\@newelemfalse \fi
  \if@newelem \collab@fmt@init \fi
  \par
  {\large #3\,$^{\mathrm{#2}}$}}
\def\first@collab{
  \collab@note@fmt
  \add@tok\t@glob@notes{\collab@note@fmt\@corresp@note}}%
\def\collab@fmt@init{\vskip 1em}
\def\author@note@fmt{\setcounter{footnote}{0}%
  \def\thefootnote{\xarabic{footnote}}}
\let\collab@note@fmt=\author@note@fmt
\def\xarabic#1{%
  \expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\ifnum\expandafter\the\@nameuse{c@#1}<0
  *\else\arabic{#1} \fi}
\def\address{\@ifstar{\address@star}%
  {\@ifnextchar[{\address@optarg}{\address@noptarg}}}
\def\address@optarg[#1]#2{\refstepcounter{address}%
  \beg@elem
  \report@elt{address}\proc@elem{address}{#2}%
  \address@fmt{\the\c@address}{\the\t@loc@notes}{\@address}\label{#1}%
  \ignorespaces}
\def\address@noptarg#1{\refstepcounter{address}%
  \beg@elem
  \proc@elem{address}{#1}%
  \address@fmt{\z@}{\the\t@loc@notes}{\@address}%
  \ignorespaces}
\def\address@star#1{%
  \beg@elem
  \proc@elem{address}{#1}%
  \address@fmt{\m@ne}{\the\t@loc@notes}{\@address}%
  \ignorespaces}
\def\theaddress{\alph{address}}
\def\address@fmt#1#2#3{\@newelemtrue
  \ifnum\prev@elem=\e@address \@newelemfalse \fi
  \if@newelem \address@fmt@init \fi
  \noindent \bgroup \small\it
  \ifnum#1=\z@
    #3\,$^{\mathrm{#2}}$\space%
  \else
    \ifnum#1=\m@ne
      $^{\phantom{\mathrm{\theaddress}}}$\space #3\,$^{\mathrm{#2}}$%
    \else
      $^{\mathrm{\theaddress}}$\space #3\,$^{\mathrm{#2}}$%
    \fi
  \fi
  \par \egroup}
\def\address@fmt@init{%
  \par
  \vskip 6pt plus 3pt minus 1.5pt}
\def\abstract{\@ifnextchar[{\@abstract}{\@abstract[]}}
\def\@abstract[#1]{%
  \global\@hasabstracttrue
  \hyphenpenalty\sv@hyphenpenalty
  \global\setbox\t@abstract=\vbox\bgroup
  \leftskip\z@
  \@rightskip\z@ \rightskip\@rightskip \parfillskip\@flushglue
  \small
  \parindent 1em
  \noindent {\bf\abstractname}
  \vskip 0.5\@bls
  \ignorespaces}
\def\endabstract{\par \egroup}
\def\keyword#1{%
  \global\@hasabstracttrue
  \hyphenpenalty\sv@hyphenpenalty
  \def\sep{\unskip; }
  \def\MSC{\par\leavevmode\hbox {\it 1991 MSC:\ }}%
  \def\PACS{\par\leavevmode\hbox {\it PACS:\ }}%
  \def\JEL{\par\leavevmode\hbox {\it JEL classification:\ }}%
  \def\UK{\par\leavevmode\hbox {\it Keywords:\ }}%
  \let\CK\relax
  \global\setbox\t@keyword=\vbox\bgroup
  \small
  \parskip\z@
  \vskip 10pt plus 2pt minus 2pt
  \noindent
  \justify@off
  \UK #1%
}
\def\endkeyword{\par \egroup}
\def\journal#1{\gdef\@journal{#1}}
\def\volume#1{\gdef\@volume{#1}}       \def\@volume{0}
\def\issue#1{\gdef\@issue{#1}}         \def\@issue{0}
\newcount\@pubyear
\newcount\@copyear
\@pubyear=\number\year
\@copyear\@pubyear \advance\@copyear-1900
\def\pubyear#1{\global\@pubyear#1
  \global\@copyear\@pubyear \global\advance\@copyear-1900
  \ignorespaces}
\def\firstpage#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else
  \gdef\@firstpage{#1}\gdef\@lastpage{#1}%
  \global\c@page=#1 \ignorespaces\fi
  }
\def\@firstpage{1}
\def\lastpage#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else
  \gdef\@lastpage{#1}\ignorespaces\fi}
\def\@lastpage{0}
\def\@pagerange{1--0}
\def\date#1{\gdef\@date{#1}}                  \def\@date{\today}
\def\aid#1{}
\def\ssdi#1#2{}
\def\received#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@received{#1}\fi}
  \def\@received{\@nil}
\def\revised#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@revised{#1}\fi}
  \def\@revised{\@nil}
\def\accepted#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@accepted{#1}\fi}
  \def\@accepted{\@nil}
\def\communicated#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@communicated{#1}\fi}
  \def\@communicated{\@nil}
\def\dedicated#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@dedicated{#1}\fi}
  \def\@dedicated{\@nil}
\def\presented#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\ifx\@tempa\@empty\else\gdef\@presented{#1}\fi}
  \def\@presented{\@nil}
\def\articletype#1{\gdef\@articletype{#1}}
  \@ifundefined{@articletype}{\def\@articletype{}}{}
\def\received@prefix{Received~}
\def\revised@prefix{; revised~}
\def\accepted@prefix{; accepted~}
\def\communicated@prefix{\\Communicated~by~}
\def\history@prefix{}
\def\received@postfix{}
\def\revised@postfix{}
\def\accepted@postfix{}
\def\communicated@postfix{}
\def\history@postfix{}
\def\empty@data{\@nil}
\def\history@fmt{%
  \bgroup
  \small
  \vskip 6pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \ifx\@received\empty@data \else
    \leavevmode
    \history@prefix
    \received@prefix\@received \received@postfix%
    \ifx\@revised\empty@data \else
      \revised@prefix\@revised \revised@postfix%
    \fi
    \ifx\@accepted\empty@data \else
      \accepted@prefix\@accepted \accepted@postfix%
    \fi
    \ifx\@communicated\empty@data \else
      \communicated@prefix\@communicated \communicated@postfix%
    \fi
    \history@postfix
  \fi
  \par \egroup}
\def\dedicated@fmt{%
  \ifx\@dedicated\empty@data \else
    \vskip 4pt plus 3pt
    \normalsize\it\centering \@dedicated
    \fi}
\def\@ialph#1{\ifcase#1\or \or \or \or \or e\or f\or g\or h\or i\or j\or
  k\or \protect\text{$\ell$}\or m\or n\or o\or p\or q\or r\or s\or t\or u\or v\or w\or x\or
  y\or z\or aa\or ab\or ac\or ad\or ae\or af\or ag\or ah\or ai\or aj\or
  ak\or a\protect\text{$\ell$}\or am\or an\or ao\or ap\or aq\or ar\or as\or at\or au\or av\or
  aw\or ay\or az\or ba\or bb\or bc\or bd\or be\or bf\or bg\or bh\or bi\or
  bj\or bk\or b\protect\text{$\ell$}\or bm\or bn\or bo\or bp\or bq\or br\or bs\or bt\or
  bu\or bw\or bx\or by\or bz\or ca\or cb\or cc\or cd\or ce\or cf\or cg\or
  ch\or ci\or cj\or ck\or c\protect\text{$\ell$}\or cm\or cn\or co\or cp\or cq\or cr\or
  cs\or ct\or cu\or cw\or cx\or cy\or cz\else\@ctrerr\fi}
\def\fnstar#1{\@fnstar{\@nameuse{c@#1}}}
\def\@fnstar#1{\ifcase#1\or
    \hbox{$\star$}\or
    \hbox{$\star\star$}\or
    \hbox{$\star\star\star$}\or
    \hbox{$\star\star\star\star$}\or
    \hbox{$\star\star\star\star\star$}\or
    \hbox{$\star\star\star\star\star\star$}
  \else
    \@ctrerr
  \fi
  \relax}
\mark{{}{}}
\def\ps@plain{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
 \def\@oddhead{}%
 \def\@evenhead{}%
 \def\@oddfoot{\hfil {\rm\thepage} \hfil}%
 \let\@evenfoot\@oddfoot}
\def\@copyright{\@issn/\the\@copyear/\$\@price\ $\copyright$\ \the\@pubyear\
  Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved}
\def\@jou@vol@pag{\@journal\ \@volume\ (\the\@pubyear)\ \@pagerange}
\let\@j@v@p\@jou@vol@pag
\let\@@j@v@p\@jou@vol@pag
\def\sectionmark#1{}
\def\subsectionmark#1{}
\def\ps@copyright{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
  \def\@oddhead{}%
  \let\@evenhead\@oddhead
  \def\@oddfoot{\small\sl
    \def\@tempa{0}
    \ifx\@volume\@tempa
      Preprint submitted to \@journal\hfil\@date\/%
    \else
      Article published in \@jou@vol@pag\hfil\hbox{}\fi}%
  \let\@evenfoot\@oddfoot
}
\let\ps@noissn\ps@empty
\let\ps@headings\ps@plain
\def\today{\number\day\space\ifcase\month\or
  January\or February\or March\or April\or May\or June\or
  July\or August\or September\or October\or November\or December\fi
  \space\number\year}
\if@nfss \relax \else
  \def\mathrm#1{{\rm #1}}
\fi
\def\nuc#1#2{\relax\ifmmode{}^{#1}{\protect\text{#2}}\else${}^{#1}$#2\fi}
\def\itnuc#1#2{\setbox\@tempboxa=\hbox{\scriptsize\it #1}
  \def\@tempa{{}^{\box\@tempboxa}\!\protect\text{\it #2}}\relax
  \ifmmode \@tempa \else $\@tempa$\fi}
\let\old@vec\vec
\def\pol#1{\old@vec{#1}}
\def\@bfvec#1{\boldsymbol{#1}}
\def\@pmbfvec#1{\pmb{#1}}
\def\undo@AMS{\global\let\vec\@bfvec}
\def\half{{\textstyle {1\over2}}}
\def\threehalf{{\textstyle {3\over2}}}
\def\quart{{\textstyle {1\over4}}}
\def\d{\,\mathrm{d}}
\def\e{\mathop{\mathrm{e}}\nolimits}
\def\int{\intop}
\def\oint{\ointop}
\newbox\slashbox \setbox\slashbox=\hbox{$/$}
\newbox\Slashbox \setbox\Slashbox=\hbox{\large$/$}
\def\pFMslash#1{\setbox\@tempboxa=\hbox{$#1$}
  \@tempdima=0.5\wd\slashbox \advance\@tempdima 0.5\wd\@tempboxa
  \copy\slashbox \kern-\@tempdima \box\@tempboxa}
\def\pFMSlash#1{\setbox\@tempboxa=\hbox{$#1$}
  \@tempdima=0.5\wd\Slashbox \advance\@tempdima 0.5\wd\@tempboxa
  \copy\Slashbox \kern-\@tempdima \box\@tempboxa}
\def\FMslash{\protect\pFMslash}
\def\FMSlash{\protect\pFMSlash}
\mathchardef\Gamma="0000
\mathchardef\Delta="0001
\mathchardef\Theta="0002
\mathchardef\Lambda="0003
\mathchardef\Xi="0004
\mathchardef\Pi="0005
\mathchardef\Sigma="0006
\mathchardef\Upsilon="0007
\mathchardef\Phi="0008
\mathchardef\Psi="0009
\mathchardef\Omega="000A
\mathchardef\varGamma="0100
\mathchardef\varDelta="0101
\mathchardef\varTheta="0102
\mathchardef\varLambda="0103
\mathchardef\varXi="0104
\mathchardef\varPi="0105
\mathchardef\varSigma="0106
\mathchardef\varUpsilon="0107
\mathchardef\varPhi="0108
\mathchardef\varPsi="0109
\mathchardef\varOmega="010A
\if@nfss
  \def\Cset{\Bbb{C}}
  \def\Hset{\Bbb{H}}
  \def\Nset{\Bbb{N}}
  \def\Qset{\Bbb{Q}}
  \def\Rset{\Bbb{R}}
  \def\Zset{\Bbb{Z}}
\fi
\ps@headings
\pagenumbering{arabic}
\def\thepage{\@pagenumprefix\arabic{page}}
\endinput